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Its currency the kuna was adopted in 1994 during the independence war to replace the Croatian dinar, which was a successor to Yugoslav dinar.
July 12, 2018 – By Palma Niemeyer. E-Dinar Coin (EDR) had a bad 24 hours as the cryptocurrency declined $-0.000269999999999999 or -2.74% …
What was being put in narrow circles a few months ago is now a question that is expanding day after day. Is the world heading for a currency war? Or is the currency war already under way, and can the Sino-US trade conflict be a prelude to a massive economic downturn that drives both sides to take a qualitative step to win the battle by turning to currency war? And who is the biggest loser in that war if it breaks out?
Currency war is the password now in many economic corridors, and it is not a matter of examining the extent of its seriousness or economic impact, such topics have killed academic research, but that the international economy suffered catastrophic effects in some stages of development, and therefore humanity has painful experiences with That kind of war, and what is currently being seen, is limited to how the global economy can face the risks of that battle.
Can the bipolar leaders of the United States and China realize the fate of the international economy if they decide to go ahead with currency war, Which may mean that Khaya Is economic suicide the official choice?
Professor John White, former chairman of the Bank of England’s Advisory Committee, puts the question to the question: Does anyone have an interest in the value of the currency being high in the current global trade conflict? The question is answered by "no".
"It can not be said that the international economy is witnessing a war of currencies, but certainly the circumstances are more than ever prepared for that war," he says. "If you are pessimistic, I can say that we are moving in this direction.
"The big economies now have a strong currency, after the strong currency has been a sign of strong economy and improved performance, and the conviction now prevailing among many economic leaders and policymakers that a weak currency will boost economic growth gives the economy a preferential advantage On his trade rivals, the risk that if everyone joined to that conviction will be all losers. "
The US administration wants the dollar to be weak, the EU is also seeking a weak European currency, and Japan is not hiding its official policy to overcome deflation lies in weakening the yen, China wants the yuan More competitive to increase exports and reduce imports, and Britain is silent on the decline of sterling, which could contribute to increase exports at a time when the exit from the European Union many economic problems.
But what’s the problem with that? Answers d. David, the Bank of England economist, said: "There is no problem in devaluation per se if it is a result of changes in market forces, but the risk when it is deliberate or flawed is done deliberately."
He asserts to the "economic" that the US side was clear and frank in accusing China strongly and frankly, as well as Japan to a lesser degree, that they manipulate the value of their local currency, the yuan and yen to achieve preferential advantages at the expense of US exports.
He notes that US Treasury Secretary Stephen Manuchen welcomed the depreciation of the dollar while welcoming the best economic performance of the euro area in more than a decade. Not surprisingly, the euro against the dollar rose to more than $ 1.25. On the other hand, The European is very upset by the euro’s improved value, which hampers its efforts to overcome deflation and low inflation in the Eurozone countries.
"Under the circumstances, investors and hedge funds are very cautious and delay their investment decisions pending clouds, which means a drop in growth."
Concerns that a trade war could turn into a currency war are legitimate for many economists, but they believe that currency war has not yet officially broken out.
But some believe that the US economy may be better able to counter that war than others. Some even believe that Washington may have a real interest in moving the international economy toward a currency war to curb the Chinese yuan’s ambitions.
And some believe that Washington has an interest in weakening the Chinese yuan so much that it can not be priced for major commodities in international trade, and this will only happen through its defeat in a currency war, which China is seeking to avoid now .
Since 2016, there are notable Chinese steps to dismantle capital controls on the yuan, a prerequisite for making it an international currency. Although these steps contribute relatively to the promotion of international trade by promoting the use of the yuan beyond China’s economic borders, it is a future challenge for the dollar American.
"The Chinese central bank has pledged that it will not use the yuan as a means of a trade dispute with the United States, revealing China’s financial policymakers’ understanding that they will emerge losers from the battle of currency war," said Tina Brown, a banking expert. In that war, the Chinese yuan is in a vulnerable position, and Beijing will not have to repeat the experience of 2015 by injecting more cash reserves into the markets to maintain the value of its national currency from total collapse against the dollar.
This means huge erosion in its dollar reserves without a household It is to maintain the balance of the yuan. "
But if the United States can emerge victorious in that war, despite the losses, why not rush to ignite the currency war ?!
The current interplay in the global economy as a result of globalization largely hampers the ability of the United States to do so. Such a war will inevitably weaken the growth rates of the Chinese economy and weaken the import intensity of China from the United States. Means that the US economy is negatively affected by the decline of his opponent.
Investment expert Boris William said the United States would accept a relative devaluation of the yuan as a means of providing some support for the Chinese economy. But if Beijing’s financial authorities ignore US warnings that the yuan should not retreat from a certain level, the sensitive level is 6.7 yuan against the dollar The US strategy will change.
"The fear that the continued devaluation of the Chinese currency against the dollar will lead to a currency war is because each country will have a different reading of the reasons for this decline. While China will view it as a justifiable move, Given the conditions in the Chinese economy.
He explains that the other side, the administration of President Trump, will look at China’s position as a plan aimed at harming the US share of world trade. If the two sides engage in a currency war, the other economies will certainly suffer greatly.
He notes that a number of advanced industrial countries such as Japan, the European Central Bank and the Bank of England have used the logic of weakening their currency more money printing to encourage exports, so why deprive China of the practice? https://www.albawaba.com/ar/%D8%A3%D8%B9%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84/%D9%87%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85-%D9%86%D8%AD%D9%88-%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A8-%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A3%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A8-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A3%D8%AA-1157616
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KUWAIT, Iraq – Iraq’s approval of any Iranian request to exchange trade between the two countries in local currency instead of the US dollar has been ruled out by economic expert Majid al-Suri, noting that such an agreement would not be in Iraq’s favor.
Al-Suri said that Iraq can not apply trade with Iran in local currencies because the trade balance will be in favor of Iran and the majority of trade for its benefit. "
He added that "the implementation of this agreement will work to store the Iraqi currency within Iran, which is not in the interest of Iraq, pointing out that" such a decision is not only the competence of the Central Bank of Iraq,
but the power of the Government of the Ministry of Finance in consultation with the Central Bank of Iraq and do not expect the bank The Central Bank of Iraq on such a matter. "
"A number of countries, including India, Russia, China, Brazil and South Africa, are trying to reduce the dollar’s control over international trade and the trade war between China and the United States has resulted," he said.
The governor of the Central Bank of Iran and Crown Prince Ali Abdullah announced on Sunday the follow-up of the bank to conclude monetary agreements with Iraq, Russia and Azerbaijan to deal in national currencies.
7/9/2018The Central Bank of Iraq announced Monday that foreign currency reserves rose to 55.7 billion dollars last June.
A source at the Central Bank of Iraq, the central bank reserves rose in June to 55.7 billion dollars, adding that the rise in foreign exchange reserves, due to successful management.
The source pointed out that Iraq, one of the countries that fully secured their reserves of foreign currency to cover demand by more than 100 percent of the dollar.
July 9, 2018 – By Hugh Holland. E-Dinar Coin (EDR) had a bad 24 hours as the cryptocurrency declined $-0.000150000000000001 or -1.43% trading …
Income is earned by one of the most important human life sizes which provides him free and dignified life and can enjoy good nutrition, health and education and achieve their legitimate aspirations, and bugs and declines in income of people exposed to a lot of troubles and challenges and produce them poverty which is the focus of the Our conversation, note that the poverty in Iraq is not new, as are all of the international community and the peoples of the universe although poverty rates varied among them.
But the events that followed the occupation and regime change after the year 2003 had a significant impact on the emergence of a new and large layers of other rich and poor at the same time, the direct causes of poverty in Iraq before and after the occupation many factors are numerous and complex of eight years war with Iran,
invaded Kuwait WA For twelve years of siege that followed the American occupation sweep plow farm fields and destroyed all our production infrastructure later fifteen years of corruption and Iraq rights override State water international norms and laws, moreover, not justice.
In the distribution of national wealth, not to mention the weakness of successive Governments ruling Iraq and that absent and left her economic development plans and projects in addition to all kinds of challenges and wars of old ideological sectarianism, racism and wars accompanied by suspicious corruption armament operations Cost more than 25% of the State budget
and development affected the Iraqi capita of Iraq all these dangerous and difficult internal factors, external factors allowed pressure to intervene in our internal affairs including the details pan, and all these challenges and poverty areas sought agents who became scary,
Having formed the proportion living below the poverty line, 25 percent of Iraq’s population, which is awesome for oil reserves are country 135 billion barrels of oil and is the latest statistics by the current oil Minister petroleum Jabbar to play comfortably; long talk about the problem of poverty and inequality class in Iraq because of the complex and its factors Complicated foremost:
Corruption is one of the most important foundations for the factors of poverty and sabotage the institutions of the State, society, and civil peace, the security of citizens, destroying the building and reconstruction projects and investment, trimming regulations and laws, dropping the State’s prestige, and much more.
Corruption does not mean stealing public money, or misappropriation of State funds directly; work on construction contracts and tenders on business owners and contractors Government Loyalists, some leaders of the political blocs and units to State authorities in Parliament who They can disable its oversight role is the core of corruption,
because these are a corrupt reserves and umbrellas for every thirsty thieves and public money, and the power of citizens, are spreading poverty in society, and waste public money on bad fake projects unproductive and diuretic,
note that each This corruption and corrupt activities and suspicious is because of lack of accountability and transparency and parliamentary control, which because of her wasting money became public in bulk and permissible.
Hundreds of billions that did not know her by weakened state, and paid to borrow, after attending more than one million young people to the unemployment lines, and on the other end has increased and expanded the fortunes of the ruling class, her preference at all,
these layers that had a first floor And basic real investors who prefer to escape and cling to work in a professional atmosphere of pure competitive plus other aspects of corruption including bribery, extortion, embezzlement and neglect aspects of corruption spread today in State institutions because of a lack of competencies,
and the question when to work To encircle and scaling these pests to eradicate them, even if there are difficulties to be achieved, and do follow up fictitious companies calling it contracts and contracting and accounting for brokers and owners of these companies,
and put them in the dock and public trials before the people. If there was a real intention to fight corruption and stop havoc in State institutions
All these violations due to the weakness of successive Governments to rule the country and spread of corrupt at all levels, and the abuse of power, even by many of the security apparatus which imposes many bribes and elements that lead to security violations constitute serious risks to Community, practices and situations contributed to the destruction of the middle class who disappeared, melted and entered a poor layer,
and everyone knows the importance and role of this layer which is the conscious cultural and human capital which form of enlightening class in society, which swallowed by corruption after becoming industries National semi destitute or hidden, and disappeared with her product and his disappearance spread poverty, unemployment, lack of jobs,
the disappearance of national industries means lack of exports, as a source of hard currency after disappearing consumer protection system and kept out of sight, and didn’t find on the scene today is layers The new rich bourgeois or spammed, and are the product of many Alliance took power with the business,
what shows that the scourge of poverty is expanding to include new categories of Iraqi society, which still live on the ration card, and on the other to accumulate money and riches However,
the politically powerful in the State at all levels in addition to financiers and business supporters of the power forming large central keys of the country’s corrupt who made Iraq home to corruption and overtaking on human rights and poverty
In short our problem in Iraq today is not strong in politics; but who works for everyone involved and working in his specialty, so you see all politically and all leaders, all engineers, physicians, respite, mtkhandkin and dispersed Iraqis need for collecting them, and the question of which political or National political figure or party you can collect.
And do we need competent able featured wises Council support and by the Constitution to find and select a Prime Minister has the qualities of a leader and leadership and competence to lead the Government,
the Prime Minister of his national decision imposing his respect through personal and scientific and professional abilities and political history His estimable Word Prime national in conflict characterized by courage and transparency, informed, Prime Minister will respect the laws and regulations and apply them to himself and everyone bravely and without hesitation,
and everyone knows the work in Iraq is a State b (altvatin) for not owning The State national meaning lack of professional scientific approach roadmap agreed, political and State need programs and foundations and starting rules constructs meaning mature process road map to address the country’s many crises large and accumulated fifteen years ago
and all you see Talking about reform and change and fight corruption and integrity and reconstruction, investment and building the country, and have not achieved anything of all this and of all political parties and without exception, we individually far from collective national action that can process management Successful governance and political reform,
change and achieves surround corruption and corrupt accounting in public and action, not slogans and grandstanding, having been absent parliamentary control Parliament became a peg to meet and pass the desires of the masses, political parties, quotas, not meet the wishes of the people And the popular will.
External influences and their role in spreading and increasing poverty.
International financial institutions play a big role in imposing economic policies often restrict national political institutions, reduce the power and possibilities of proclamation of the institutions responsible for activities,
because of how the conditions are tough pressure on the leaders, politicians and decision makers in countries The third world and Iraq is part of this world that harsh conditions imposed by the IMF and the World Bank external conditions that have nothing to do with systemic national borrowing States inside despite having the Bank system and emphasizes the need not to cause any damage loans Borrowing powers,
and not to exercise any pressure on them, but in fact all these systems or regulations do not place her on the ground and are infiltrated and broken, and the borrowing countries, abiding by all the most liberal and open economic policies,
meet her loans, meaning that the systems This social States cannot be developed and established only according to liberal visions of the IMF and the World Bank, meaning it is only words and everyone sought to build and establish personal and selfish interests,
so push the conditions the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank (free market) down to scale the State And prevent it as much as possible not to intervene directly in economic life because of an unfair tax policies imposed on countries policies linked to limitations and conditions of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and world trade,
is unjust and Iraq policies intended to drown in debt after he tripped State role Liberal interests social protection system that destroyed their world and savings rates, down to destroy Iraqi national economy which has become incapable of providing jobs for citizens.
25% of Iraqi people living under the poverty line due to the absence of national economic and social personalities and political economic field in addition to political pressures emerging that is destroying the inside of the national economy in all its dimensions the strategy
that led to spend billions on Fictitious enterprises due to fragmentation and political, social and security absence of internal national political will, led to loss of market size is desired effects and key factors contributed to deepening poverty and spread,
after declining development and distorts the economy and break it, and break the economy Agriculture, lack of investment that ebbed and tumbling and expulsion from Iraq and become has no place, because of corruption and corrupt people who are putting obstacles in the way professionals investors who refuse and not subject to extortion (alkhaoh)
each of these violations and corruption levelled ate national economy and undid Iraq We are one of the richest countries in the world that darted by corruption and poor management of State institutions and the power struggle to the foreign debt and its institutions
such as the IMF and accessories today Iraq is intended to go to scary and terrifying fiscal policies because these debts which increased class disparities and poverty areas The disappearance of the middle class and their impoverishment and destruction and the emergence of new-rich layers on the ruins and suffering new poor
Need development to clean skilled conscious ruling class can raise savings rates his power development which are the most important factors that work to alleviate poverty and address some of it to support economic growth and to increase its size by expanding small and medium-sized enterprises which have become real and not imaginary Part of the corruption here has to be mentioned
the State of self to build small projects like this that a large proportion of them did not materialize because of poor follow up State and checking the performance of these projects a reality on the ground means you go these advances to the misplaced and intended to SME advances made by a The State has not achieved anything on the ground
here must pass the importance and necessity of genuine human development through attention to the development of education and training, health and support the role of civil society institutions discreet jurisdiction and role and presence in the field have scientific committees headquarters
A professional add that social welfare is linked to social security programs which I wore suspicions of corruption because of moving away from justice and the distribution of income and the large proportion of alamsawah for the most money and not for the lowest income add so farming
but destruction means the destruction of the system Food security now that millions of agricultural land unfit for agriculture because of the stolen lots of water by Iraq neighboring countries which dominate the headwaters of rivers
and in fact reasons for this decline to a lack of political will and seav special occupational culture culture of all kinds and functions The executive-led Government add so what we touch food wastage on numerous occasions worth billions mean million tons go to trash.
Lacking social justice and the poor has increased poverty and rich blues and lost human rights and declining role of education and health services in General and all this happened and continues to happen because of lack of accountability and accounting
after becoming income rate in Iraq of three hundred dollars to five hundred dollars all because of absence of accountability mean D lack of accountability of the political class that governs accountability for all these failures and causes of corruption and the deterioration of infrastructure and services and is intended to the deterioration of the human rights
Absence of popular attendance
Iraq officials became fun citizens of electricity, water and food crises and wars, terrorism, extremism and the atonement and becoming laws and regulations and other policy decisions are formulated and recognizes the shape intersects with the wishes and the will of the Iraqi people and his absence from the political arena
if there or attending Popular opposition to any policy to spread corruption and entrenched in the body of the State and society and take control of decisions and political directions after I missed a word people in all the devastation and destruction and struggles for power and the solution lies in changing policies and Government work
and show diagrams and State projects here highlights the role Intellectuals and people unemployed and poor people living under the poverty line lttzaver their efforts towards peaceful activities and national action clear and strong to correct the March of political,
social and economic state after all these terrorist incursions and sectarianism and takfiri and ruin all these situations Zada home ruined and poor and deteriorating because of failed policies only change a national revival and popular presence policy change
at the forefront of economic and financial policies to boost the stability of the political situation and in particular, the national people’s presence is achieved will change to return Iraq to lead Himself and participate in this region depends on popular consciousness,
which could change the political, economic and development realities, which can be achieved only by presence in the field and practical for the masses and is not long after he became a stone that poverty and living under a plan generates a blast for reform and change,
Because the failure of politics and the presence of corruption and terrorism and wars, sectarian atonement made poverty and caste inequality, underdevelopment and the public aware of their responsibilities and you took the initiative to be national security valve,
here must remind political leaders that they must work hard. And perseverance and wisdom and professional and clear visions and ripe for change and switch all the tracks before the flood.
July 8, 2018 – By Winifred Garcia. E-Dinar Coin (EDR) had a bad 24 hours as the cryptocurrency declined $-0.000109999999999999 or -1.04% …