International trust

5/24/2018

Haidar Kazem al-Baghdadi
When the hubs of work are suffering a confused reality, the demand for presence in such markets is weak, despite the large profits, and sometimes it is doubling elsewhere in other places.

And here comes the importance of work in such a market at the regional and international levels, and the great interest by the international economic blocs in this economy or that then draw plans to reach the incubators and start a process of action that benefits all parties, to rotate the national economy in a direction that serves sustainable development.

In Iraq, we need to communicate with the world’s leading companies that are rated on the international list, and invest their efforts in the local labor market, which provides great employment opportunities for a large number of local, regional and international companies, and this became known to all those interested in economic affairs.

International confidence is the key to the economic advancement of any country in the world.

The Iraqi, who has suffered from terror over the last period and has now become the gateway to salvation and the destruction of its forces, has become the focus of many international companies owning advanced capital and technology that can be the center of true development.

Economic development that the country looks forward to and looks forward to.
The Iraqi economy needs to unite efforts of all institutions concerned to work to gain international confidence in the local work, which is an environment attracting large investments to the fields of production and services in different regions of Iraq, where the ideal job opportunities in the cities and can absorb a very large size, International.

We can not seek effective economic construction away from providing an environment of seriousness, especially that the international companies are studying the reality of work and guarantees from all sides and then come after its decision to invest or not in any country has employment opportunities.

In Iraq, which has an investment law regulating the work, the need is urgent to stand the institutions concerned and study the reality and create the appropriate atmosphere for the entry of advanced technologies and capital to Iraq, where it can invest in industry, agriculture, tourism and services …., This means for international companies that work opportunities In the Iraqi labor market is renewed, and any company can put long plans to work in such a market less can be described as promising.

The international trust for our country is very important for the start of major reconstruction, and it is imperative to create an ideal working environment during the period that facilitates investment operations, to build an effective regional and international economy.

http://www.alsabaah.iq/ArticleShow.aspx?ID=157599

Hakim and Kubitsch discuss UN support for Iraq

5/22/2018

BAGHDAD / Al-Sabah The head of the National Alliance Ammar al-Hakim, during a meeting with the representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Iraq, Jan Kubic, the international organization to support the next government in achieving its goals of eliminating corruption.

This comes at a time when the President of the Supreme Judicial Council, Judge Faik Zeidan, the UN official and discussed with him the situation in Iraq.

"Hakim received the representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Iraq, and discussed with him the developments of the political situation locally and regionally, and the results of the elections and the formation of the next government," the statement said.

"The importance of forming a national government is capable of achieving the aspirations of the Iraqi people and the need to be an Iraqi decision away from regional and international disputes and the importance of investing the opportunity available after the recent democratic practice to remove the country from its crises and achieve what the citizen aspires to.

He urged the president of the coalition, "the international organization to support the next government in achieving its goals of providing services and the elimination of corruption and renewal of the administrative system through the expertise and possibilities possessed by the
United Nations ."

In a statement to the Supreme Judicial Council’s Information Office, Al-Sabah said that the head of the Judicial Council, Judge Faik Zaidan, met with the UN official, discussed the situation in Iraq, discussed a number of issues of mutual interest and reviewed the UN support for Iraq in all Areas.

http://www.alsabaah.iq/ArticleShow.aspx?ID=157502

Iraq Duty Free has responded to allegations regarding the renewal of its contract to run the duty free concessions at Baghdad and Basra airports in Iraq.

According to the statement from its CEO, Ahmed Kamal, the owner of company has not been convicted of “any crime of punishment that deprives the freedom in Iraq.”

His response is carried in full below:

Iraq Duty Free strongly refutes all such allegations regarding the contract renewal which have been aired on Al Ahad channel. The contract between Iraq Duty Free and Iraqi Civil Aviation Authority has passed through a number of legal and regulatory authorities before concluding it. It was approved by Iraqi Civil Aviation Authority and then further endorsed by Ministery of Transportation. So all allegations by Al Ahad channel regarding the contract renewal are baseless and these allegations are aimed to tarnish our reputation and business goodwill. What was published about us in Al Ahad Channel is flagrantly untrue, and we have requested the channel to show evidence and documents of what it has stated; or else the right of reply is assured for us by law.

As for what your website has reported about the Al Ahad Channel and what was published about our company, we would like to indicate to you and all observers that businesses in Iraq have been encountering many challenges and every day false accusations are being published here and there and the last of which is what was aired about us in Al Ahad Channel which is baseless and defamatory act targeted on a business which has employed hundreds, if not thousands, of Iraqis and is one of the major employers in Iraq. We not only bring a pleasant shopping experience to Iraq but also we bring world best brands for Iraqi travelers. As a responsible corporate citizen, Iraq Duty Free is regularly contributing its resources for the welfare of Iraqi people.

We inform you that our company has a contract of leasing Iraqi duty free shops, which was entered into with relevant parties under the supervision of the Ministry of Transportation, and our company has not lagged behind in implementing the provisions prescribed in the contract, as it is an investment contract and cost us millions of dollars in order to develop and modernize the free duty shops, showrooms and some works related to Baghdad International Airport in terms of modernization, reconstruction and development, and there is no legal impediment to prevent renewing the contract even before its expiry; rather both contracted parties are entitled by law to do that with mutual consent.

Regarding what is said on website about the owner of company, we would like to tell you that the owner of company is an Iraqi National and not convicted of any crime of punishment that deprives the freedom in Iraq; furthermore, there is no text or law that prevents him from contracting inside Iraq, requesting your esteemed website kindly to investigate the facts before publication, as the bad information could commercially affect the company’s reputation, especially that our company is of the leading companies in Iraq.

We would request Iraq Business News to not pick the defamatory news spread by Al Ahad channel. If Al Ahad Channel has any evidence or legal documents that confirm what is published about us, we request them to announce it before slandering it on media.

(Picture: Duty free, from asiandelight/Shutterstock)

Damaged currency causes great suffering and embarrassment to citizens

5/21/2018

Some circles do not accept dealing with them
Baghdad / Huda al-Azzawi

The Iraqi citizen may be one of the few citizens in the world, who complain about not accepting the deal in the national currency torn or damaged by some departments or institutions or shops, which causes him many problems and verbal quarrels may reach sometimes to conflict with hands in full view of The concerned authorities that did not issue a clear and direct order obligates everyone to deal with the currency in any way.

Currency torn within salaries
Al-Sabah spoke with more than one official and a citizen in order to shed light on this problem.

"At the end of each month, we allocate more than (200) thousand dinars of the currency torn apart equally among the employees of our district," said a member of the committee to receive salaries in a state department.

The employee, who did not want to be named, said that «a lot of problems and verbal quarrels occur between us and the trustees of the Fund, who insist on handing over sums of money smuggled and affixed on both sides, beginning with the employee’s suffering in how to manage this currency rejected by most dealers, Cabs to shop owners ».

She cautioned the employee that all this is happening as a result of the absence of a number of measures and means that the Central Bank of Iraq to take to maintain the prestige of the currency and ease of circulation in the markets.

Currency exchange

As for the burning or buried currency, Hassan pointed out that it is submitted to the Central Bank exclusively to replace them according to certain controls, noting that the bank is working on its part to solve this problem through the processing of Rafidain Bank and Rashid new banknotes and small categories to pay within the salaries of employees,

He pointed out that t
he bank continues to print and improve the banknotes, especially small groups, and pump them to compensate for the damaged paper, while at the same time preserving the currency and accepting it whatever its status as a symbol representing Aadh country and inform the bank in the case of refusal of banks received the damaged currency of citizens.

The suffering of the working class
For his part, said the citizen Rafie Abdul Latif MP, that the working classes and poor are the most social groups are vulnerable to deal with damaged currencies, because this segment traded in many of them, in addition to the same currency to factors that lead to damage early, such as moisture and wet and other It is noteworthy that even the gas stations have refused to accept the torn paper currency,

Therefore, the government and the concerned parties should enact laws to protect the currency as is the case in a number of foreign countries that have issued legal provisions criminalizing those who refuse to deal with them if they are torn or
old.

Stamping of coins

On the re-minting of the coin for small groups and thus salvation from the problem of extinction of the currency currently in circulation, drew Professor of Economics, University of Nahrain Dr. Ngham Hussein Nima, that there were attempts in 2005-2006 to issue a coin of 250 dinars and 100 dinars and 50 dinars and 25

But the loss of the culture of trading in small metal groups among the public forced the Central Bank to stop circulation and convert it into scrap metal and sell it to a trader, so before taking any steps for the introduction of the coin must propagate the culture of trading in small metal categories

And this is certainly the responsibility of the Central Bank of Iraq through the dissemination of financial culture among all segments of the society and openness to the public to raise financial awareness among their ranks and to indicate the importance of dealing with metal groups And keep the currency

Measures to protect the currency
to that said economic researcher Hassan Jamg, said the currency ‘s strength will be in a positive state with the power of the state, the larger the strong and stable state and the economy in the active state, the same presence and effectiveness in the transactions of internal and external of this currency,

and no secret that most communities and nations take A number of measures and means to preserve this currency and to attempt to secure its material and moral status from any external influences that may be natural or by an effective act, such as the case of currency fraud or smuggling abroad,

it may be among the solutions to emphasize the need to respect National currency and dealing Regardless of their condition, and in the case that the currency is very tired or in poor condition, such as torn or semi-damaged, the obligation of government agencies to facilitate the taking or retrieval, and then delivery to banks or the competent banking authorities to destroy them and issue a new currency instead of that damaged.

http://www.alsabaah.iq/ArticleShow.aspx?ID=157412

International Monetary Fund: Iraq’s economy will improve in 5 years

5/21/2018

The program ‘s credit path optimization
Baghdad / Emad Emirate
International Monetary Fund predicted that Iraq failed to curb public spending and control of the financial inability to maximize its resources and non – oil, while maintaining the level of economic performance is acceptable through a number of economic indicators for the years 2016/2022.

"The estimated program agreed between Iraq and the International Monetary Fund, and expectations of the economic and financial situation until 2022, indicate that the Iraqi economy will move towards achieving the credit ceiling of the Fund.

"The gross domestic product, which fell from 234.6 billion dollars in 2013 to about 171.7 billion dollars in 2016, because of the decline in oil prices in that year," and expected to "return to increase the value of GDP in the coming years to reach about 256 billion dollars In 2022, after the improvement in oil prices and increase the quantities exported to more than 4 million barrels per day and a barrel of exchange.

" Real output continued, expectations indicate that the "citizen ‘s share of GDP began to rise from $ 4533 in 2016 to about $ 5806 in 2022, the rise in real output rates to 2.1 percent in 2022, and the rise in real output of non – oil from the negative rates of rates over the years 2014/2016 to about 4.1 percent in 2022.

" Pressing expenses

"The measures by which the government seeks to maximize revenues and pressure public expenditure will boost public revenues, which will increase in accordance with the expectations of the International Monetary Fund in the coming years to reach 33.1 percent in 2022," he said.

Non-oil revenues For his part, said the academic economist d. "According to forecasts, public revenues will return to a higher percentage of GDP as a result of the relative improvement in oil prices and an increase in expected export capacity over the next five years, which is reflected in the increase in oil revenues that have taken the same direction as the general federations ."


He stressed in an interview for "morning" that "non-oil revenues are found to take the expected improvement according to the reform program committed by the government to the International Monetary Fund to increase the proportion of the lowest level in 2014, which amounted to 2.1 percent to about 5.5 percent of gross domestic product in 2022" .

Deficit reduction added Hisham "for public expenditure Vtaatouka IMF indicators fall to 31.1 percent in 2022, which can be through this reduction to reduce the deficit in public budgets and to achieve a balance between revenue and expenditure."

He pointed out that "the biggest reduction will be not in current expenditures, but in the capital expenditure, which is expected to decline from 22.6 percent in 2014 to no more than 8.6 percent of GDP in 2022, which will reflect the government’s ability to develop public services and infrastructure "He said.

http://www.alsabaah.iq/ArticleShow.aspx?ID=157397

Special: Cooperation between the public and private sectors is the key to industrial development
5/21/2018

The industry looks forward to the production of traffic signs
Baghdad / Hussein Thugb
The cooperation between public sector productive and service institutions is an important center for supporting national production and activating it, and achieving major economic goals in light of the trend to develop national production in all its aspects and cover the largest proportion of the needs of local markets.


In the meantime, the General Company for Steel Industries revealed the signing of three contracts with the Municipality of Baghdad for the rehabilitation and manufacture of traffic signs in the capital Baghdad on both sides of Karkh and Rusafa.

The signing of contracts
, said Director General of the company ‘s engineer Jalal Abbas Hussein in a press interview that " the signing of these contracts is the first of the work of the plant traffic signs after his rehabilitation and opened by the Minister of Industry and Minerals Engineer Mohamed Xiaa Sudanese in the past month of March,

adding that "there ‘s overtures for the purpose of manufacturing Traffic signs on the airport road, explaining that it is hoped to sign contracts in the near future with some security agencies to manufacture car numbers according to international standards approved.

Progress plans
"Iraq is capable of being at the forefront of industrial countries in the region, if this approach is accompanied by phased plans that promote national production gradually and systematically in cooperation with major industrial blocs around the world," said Aqil al-Nouri.

He pointed out that "the most important steps should be to encourage the national industry to be adopted by public institutions, especially as they are manufactured in accordance with international quality standards, and under the supervision of the standardization and quality control, which requires all parties to work together one hand to promote national production and support from During its adoption of various requirements. "

He pointed out that "Iraq has the fundamentals of promoting the national production of natural resources and human resources, adding to the geographical location among the countries of the world, where it can invest in the establishment of major industrial cities in Iraq aimed at the products of the East and West markets, On industrial investment in Iraq.

" Attracting investment in turn President of the National Business Council Iraq Dawood Abdul Zayer in between more than an economic occasion the importance of working on the establishment of the major economic city in Faw district far south of Iraq (FAO economic authority) that can industrial and commercial investments attracted to Iraq to be a global trading center provides all the requirements of The work of international companies specialized, pointing out that "this city is achieving great economic growth for Iraq and address the biggest problems in our production sector."

General Manager of the company Engineer Jalal Abbas Hussein said that "the company has made offers to the security authorities to manufacture car numbers on the German side and was agreed in principle and the preparation of a contract form it," at the same time,

"the company to manufacture a model numbers of several parties
in cooperation with one of the investors specifications High quality to be a breakthrough for cooperation during the coming period.

" A future plan said Hussein that " the company has a future plan to announce the traffic signs plant as an investment opportunity in order to develop the lab is fully equipped and integrated production lines for the manufacture of traffic signs guidance and advanced cars on the numbers of foreign or German Similarly according to the requirements of the General Directorate of Traffic."

The Minister of Industry and Minerals, Engineer Mohamed Shi’a al-Sudani, opened the Traffic Marks Laboratory on 12 March after rehabilitation and adding some machines with self-sufficient capabilities to cover the needs of the Ministries of Interior, Construction, Housing, Municipalities and the Municipality of Baghdad from various signs of significance and publicity.

http://www.alsabaah.iq/ArticleShow.aspx?ID=157394

The United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) has welcomed a contribution of AUD 11 million (USD 8.6 million) from the Government of Australia dedicated to explosive hazard management in support of humanitarian and stabilization efforts.

Approximately 2.1 million civilians are still displaced due to the recent conflict and unsafe conditions to allow their return. A nation-wide intentions survey was carried out by REACH in partnership with the Camp Coordination and Camp Management Cluster in internally displaced person (IDP) camps between 12 December 2017 and 14 January 2018 highlighted that 52% of people interviewed were not planning to return home.

Of the 52% that will not return, 21% stated this was due to the possible presence of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and unexploded ordnance. In effect, 1 in 10 IDPs in the camps surveyed who are not leaving the camp are not returning home because of the fear of explosive hazard contamination in or nearby their homes.

The Government of Iraq maintains explosive hazard management capacities within a number of government entities and established mine action authorities, though the demand for assistance far exceeds the resources available.

With the three-year contribution from Australia, UNMAS will conduct survey and clearance of liberated areas suspected to be affected by explosive hazards. This is in direct support of the Government priorities as outlined in the Directorate for Mine Action (DMA) “National Strategic and Executive Plan for Mine Action for 2017-2021” which highlights DMA’s aim to be able to survey, mark and render safe 50% of known explosive hazard contamination by 2021.

Simultaneously, in collaboration with DMA, risk education will be provided to those living in and returning to liberated areas, directly mitigating the threat posed by explosive hazards and IEDs. The efforts will specifically target affected communities known or suspected to have an explosive hazard or IED threat.

The Australian Ambassador to Iraq, Dr. Joanne Loundes (pictured) said:

“Australia is proud to partner with UNMAS and provide AUD11 million over three years towards critical demining activities in Iraq. Even though Iraqi territory has been liberated from ISIL, explosives remain hidden in homes, schools, hospitals and roads in former ISIL controlled areas. Unless these areas are cleared, people cannot return home, stabilisation and reconstruction efforts will stall and the human toll from this devastating conflict will continue.”

Pehr Lodhammar, UNMAS Senior Programme Manager, added:

“Through this generous contribution, the Government of Australia will further enable UNMAS to respond to explosive hazards through survey and clearance and in turn enable safe and dignified returns.”

(Source: UN)

Us report: Abadi "weak" and Iraq’s decision to follow Iran

5/19/2018

Baghdad/Iraq News Network-Ray Brookings, Saturday, that the Iraqi elections that took place on the 12th of last May helped strengthen the power of the crowd and weaken Prime Minister Haider Abadi, who was described as America’s man in Baghdad.

The Institute said in a report that "elections in the country had encountered violence and turmoil like Iraq shouldn’t be underestimated however, Iraq will turn into a new chapter," stating that "the election weakened Abadi, who was sometimes described as (America’s man in Baghdad).

" He added that "despite the publicity and high expectations on the prospects but Abadi failed new beginning inspiration contribute to easing ethnic and religious tensions and the formation of national consensus needed by Iraq", saying that "elections have strengthened the power of the crowd".

He said the report that "the elections can provide an opportunity to create a clean slate between societies and between members of rival political class and between citizen and State, but not a panacea."

http://aliraqnews.com/%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A3%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%83%D9%8A%D8%A7%D9%84%D 8%B9%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%8A-%D8%B6%D8%B9%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%88%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A7%D 8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A7/

Translations of Assyrian writings found by archaeologists from the University of Tübingen have yielded a secret lost to history: The place where the clay tablets were found – Bassetki, in Autonomous Region of Kurdistan in Iraq – appears to be the ancient royal city of Mardaman.

This important northern Mesopotamian city is cited in ancient sources, but researchers did not know where it lay. It existed between 2,200 and 1,200 years BC, was at times a kingdom or a provincial capital and was conquered and destroyed several times.

Archaeologists from Tübingen’s Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Studies excavated the archive of 92 clay tablets in summer 2017. Headed by Professor Peter Pfälzner, the team is working at the Bronze Age site with Dr. Hasan Qasim of the Duhok Antiquities Department. The clay tablets date to the Middle Assyrian Empire, about 1,250 BC.

The small, partly crumbling tablets have now been read painstakingly by the University of Heidelberg philologist Dr Betina Faist, who is cooperating as specialist for the Assyrian language with the archaeological project at Tübingen. She used photographs of the texts, which bit by bit shed light on the history of the city and the region at the time of the Middle Assyrian Empire.

To the archaeologists’ surprise, Dr. Faist was able to identify the find site as the ancient city of Mardama. As the cuneiform scripts show, it was the administrative seat of a Middle Assyrian governor. This reveals a new, previously unknown province of the empire, which straddled large parts of Northern Mesopotamia and Syria in the 13th century BC. Even the name of the Assyrian governor, Assur-nasir, and his tasks and activities are described in the tablets. “All of a sudden it became clear that our excavations had found an Assyrian governor’s palace,” says Pfälzner.

At the same time, the translation reveals the location of the city named as Mardaman in Old Babylonian sources from around 1,800 BC, and which is likely to be the Assyrian Mardama. According to the sources, it was the center of a kingdom which was conquered by one of the greatest rulers of the time, Shamshi-Adad I, in 1,786 BC and integrated into his Upper Mesopotamian empire. However, a few years later it became an independent kingdom under a Hurrian ruler called Tish-ulme.

A period of prosperity followed, but shortly later the city was destroyed by the Turukkaeans, people from the Zagros Mountains to the north. “The cuneiform texts and our findings from the excavations in Bassetki now make it clear that that was not the end,” Pfälzner says. “The city existed continuously and achieved a final significance as a Middle Assyrian governor’s seat between 1,250 and 1,200 BC.”

The history of Mardaman can be traced back even further, to the early periods of Mesopotamian civilization. Sources from the Third Dynasty of Ur, approximately 2,100–2,000 BC, portray it as an important city on the northern periphery of the Mesopotamian empire. The oldest source goes back to the Akkadian Empire, which is considered the first empire in history. It mentions that the city was destroyed a first time around 2250 BC by Naram-Sin, the most powerful Akkadian ruler.

“The clay tablets of Bassetki make an important new contribution to the geography of Mesopotamia,” the Assyriologist Betina Faist explains. This discovery may provide clues to the locations of other early cities in Mesopotamia, Pfälzner says. “Mardaman certainly rose to be an influential city and a regional kingdom, based on its position on the trade routes between Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Syria. At times it was an adversary of the great Mesopotamian powers. So the University of Tübingen’s future excavations in Bassetki are sure to yield many more exciting discoveries.”

The Bronze Age city site of Bassetki was discovered in 2013 by archaeologists from the Tübingen collaborative research center 1070, ResourceCultures. The clay tablets found in 2017 had been deposited in a pottery vessel used as an archive, and had been wrapped in a thick covering of clay along with other vessels. “They may have been hidden this way shortly after the surrounding building had been destroyed. Perhaps the information inside it was meant to be protected and preserved for posterity,” Pfälzner explains.

(Source: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen)

Translations of Assyrian writings found by archaeologists from the University of Tübingen have yielded a secret lost to history: The place where the clay tablets were found – Bassetki, in Autonomous Region of Kurdistan in Iraq – appears to be the ancient royal city of Mardaman.

This important northern Mesopotamian city is cited in ancient sources, but researchers did not know where it lay. It existed between 2,200 and 1,200 years BC, was at times a kingdom or a provincial capital and was conquered and destroyed several times.

Archaeologists from Tübingen’s Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Studies excavated the archive of 92 clay tablets in summer 2017. Headed by Professor Peter Pfälzner, the team is working at the Bronze Age site with Dr. Hasan Qasim of the Duhok Antiquities Department. The clay tablets date to the Middle Assyrian Empire, about 1,250 BC.

The small, partly crumbling tablets have now been read painstakingly by the University of Heidelberg philologist Dr Betina Faist, who is cooperating as specialist for the Assyrian language with the archaeological project at Tübingen. She used photographs of the texts, which bit by bit shed light on the history of the city and the region at the time of the Middle Assyrian Empire.

To the archaeologists’ surprise, Dr. Faist was able to identify the find site as the ancient city of Mardama. As the cuneiform scripts show, it was the administrative seat of a Middle Assyrian governor. This reveals a new, previously unknown province of the empire, which straddled large parts of Northern Mesopotamia and Syria in the 13th century BC. Even the name of the Assyrian governor, Assur-nasir, and his tasks and activities are described in the tablets. “All of a sudden it became clear that our excavations had found an Assyrian governor’s palace,” says Pfälzner.

At the same time, the translation reveals the location of the city named as Mardaman in Old Babylonian sources from around 1,800 BC, and which is likely to be the Assyrian Mardama. According to the sources, it was the center of a kingdom which was conquered by one of the greatest rulers of the time, Shamshi-Adad I, in 1,786 BC and integrated into his Upper Mesopotamian empire. However, a few years later it became an independent kingdom under a Hurrian ruler called Tish-ulme.

A period of prosperity followed, but shortly later the city was destroyed by the Turukkaeans, people from the Zagros Mountains to the north. “The cuneiform texts and our findings from the excavations in Bassetki now make it clear that that was not the end,” Pfälzner says. “The city existed continuously and achieved a final significance as a Middle Assyrian governor’s seat between 1,250 and 1,200 BC.”

The history of Mardaman can be traced back even further, to the early periods of Mesopotamian civilization. Sources from the Third Dynasty of Ur, approximately 2,100–2,000 BC, portray it as an important city on the northern periphery of the Mesopotamian empire. The oldest source goes back to the Akkadian Empire, which is considered the first empire in history. It mentions that the city was destroyed a first time around 2250 BC by Naram-Sin, the most powerful Akkadian ruler.

“The clay tablets of Bassetki make an important new contribution to the geography of Mesopotamia,” the Assyriologist Betina Faist explains. This discovery may provide clues to the locations of other early cities in Mesopotamia, Pfälzner says. “Mardaman certainly rose to be an influential city and a regional kingdom, based on its position on the trade routes between Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Syria. At times it was an adversary of the great Mesopotamian powers. So the University of Tübingen’s future excavations in Bassetki are sure to yield many more exciting discoveries.”

The Bronze Age city site of Bassetki was discovered in 2013 by archaeologists from the Tübingen collaborative research center 1070, ResourceCultures. The clay tablets found in 2017 had been deposited in a pottery vessel used as an archive, and had been wrapped in a thick covering of clay along with other vessels. “They may have been hidden this way shortly after the surrounding building had been destroyed. Perhaps the information inside it was meant to be protected and preserved for posterity,” Pfälzner explains.

(Source: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen)